Barga, an ancient castle of Lombard origin, surrounded by walls with three gates, was several times, from 1200 to 1360, besieged by Lucca and Pisa, and in 1436-37 by the mercenaries of Piccinino, paid by the Visconti of Milan, in the war against Florence, Signoria which, Barga belonged since 1341.
Barga and its territory followed the fortunes of the Florentine state until 1859.
Unlike other castles of Lucca, Barga, at all times, even under the protection of Florence, was governed by an elected body. This independence was recognized by the Countess Matilda of Canossa, Margravine of Tuscany, and reconfirmed by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.

The main monuments are:
The Arringo
Conservatory S. Elizabeth
Church of St. Francis Convent and outside walls.

Castelvecchio Pascoli. The house of the poet.
On the hill of Caprona is the house where Giovanni Pascoli lived from 1859 to 1912 with his sister Mary.
The poet chose this place because of the beauty of the landscape, its silences, its green, the richness of the voices of the campaign.
Here lies close to the dear sister in the chapel adjoining the villa.
In the house are collected manuscripts, diplomas, books of the poet.
Every year in September the municipal administration held in Barga Readings Pascoli, released in "Pictures Pascolian".